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[旅游攻略] 越南菜

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发表于 2014-8-13 17:44:06 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
越南菜    Vietnam cuisine    以鱼露为本,添加其他调味品而成的菜肴。原料上除广用热带蔬果外,在做法上倾向天然清爽,口味较重酸、甜。特点为清淡不油腻,添加蔬菜的比例高,以保存菜料的原味为原则,颇受健康饮食派的推崇。生牛肉河粉、越式春卷、鸭仔蛋、酸皮肉丝等均为名菜。此外,饮品亦富特色,如冰冻润喉的椰青,色泽艳丽的三色冰和珍多冰等。    越南菜给人的印象有两种,一种是价钱较为便宜,菜式大众化而带点中式特点,餐厅的环境不会做太多装饰;另一种就是强调法国式烹调的越南菜,由于越南曾被法国统治,处处留下法国文化的痕迹,越南菜的口味也因此受到影响,因而有法式越南菜的说法。     越南人承自中国饮食阴阳调和的饮食文化,烹调最重清爽、原味,只放少许香料,鱼露、香花菜和青柠檬等是其中必不可少的佐料,以蒸煮、烧烤、熬焖、凉拌为主,热油锅炒者较少。即使是一些被认为较“上火”的油炸或烧烤菜肴,也多会配上新鲜生菜、薄荷菜、九层塔、小黄瓜等可生吃的菜一同食用,以达到“去油下火”的功效。    越南菜偏酸辣,吃起来特别令人开胃。越南特色檬、蔗虾、越南春卷是特色菜,越南檬配上薄荷叶和酸辣酱别有一番风味。蔗虾就是用果蔗把虾肉串起来烤,上碟后连同配菜用烘干的米汤皮蘸水包起,再包上生菜蘸着酸辣酱吃,既香口又不腻,再加上自己动手包,别有一番风味。春卷外脆内香,包上生菜更觉得清香可口。饭后不妨试试越南咖啡,等待着它慢慢地滴入杯中,再配上炼奶,细细品尝它的香滑。    越南菜比不上湘菜辣得那么狠,似乎是刚刚才品出点辣意来,那感觉又匆匆过去了,如若有若无的微风似的。酸辣汤是其中的代表之作,并不是用酸醋做的,而是用一种当地出产的酸子,酸子是一种当地处长的形如刀豆的豆科植物的核,带有酸味。酸汤中除酸子外,还放入斑鱼、豆芽、蕃茄和香菜等,煮出来的汤味道辣中有酸,酸中有鲜。     越南菜最重要的秘诀是桌上那一碟鱼露配料,鱼露用纯天然的方式用长时间来腌制,集中鱼的精华,有很高的营养价值。鱼露虽然是其貌不扬,不过在醮上食物后送入口时,却有种说不出的鲜美,所有浓、腻、化不开的菜,若放少许鱼露便有清新的风味。据说还是越南妇女身材窈窕的秘方,鱼露相当滋阴,妇女长期服用可永葆青春体态。     越南咖喱粉口味比较适中,不会有特别刺激的感觉,和越南椰奶、青柠檬、椰丝一起调成咖喱汁,口感清淡,椰香味浓;印度咖喱所用咖喱粉有很重的香料味,而泰国的咖喱膏口感辣味很重。     与印度香料最大的区别在于,越南的香料都是用新鲜的植物来做的,香茅,是越南菜里最常用到的一种调味的佐料,会闻到一股浓郁的花香;柠檬草、罗勒、薄荷、芹菜给越南菜增色不少;洋葱、青葱、欧芹又为越南菜带来异国情调。在做法上通常

325F. Add a few rolls at a time, but do not crowd. Fry for 10 seconds. Immediately increase to high heat or 375F. Fry, turning occasionally until golden brown, about 6 to 8 minutes. Remove and drain on paper towel. Cut crosswise into 1+1/2-inch pieces. Arrange rolls on a plate lined with lettuce. On another plate, arrange leaves of lettuce, fresh coriander and mint leaves. To eat, wrap spring-roll garnish with sprig of coriander and mint leaves in a lettuce leaf and dip into nuoc cham sauce (See RECIPE).    ☆ Vietnamese Recipes / Rice Noodle Dish Recipe   1/4 cup rice vinegar 1 tbl sugar  1/2 medium sweet onion (Vidalia or purple) 8 oz firm dried rice noodles 1/4 cup fresh lime juice 2 tsp vegetable oil  1/2 tsp dried crushed red pepper 1/3 cup chopped fresh mint 1/3 cup chopped fresh cilantro  1 large cucumber, peeled, seeded and thinly sliced 4 green onions thinly sliced  3 plum tomatoes seeded and chopped  2 tbl lightly salted cocktail peanuts slightly crushed   Whisk vinegar and sugar in medium bowl to blend. Add onion rings and toss to coat. Cover and let stand at least 30 minutes and up to 4 hrs. Drain, reserving 2 tbl of vinegar mixture. Cook noodles in boiling water about 2 minutes until al dente. Drain and rinse under cold water. Drain well.   Whisk lime juice, oil and crushed pepper in small bowl to blend. Stir in mint and cilantro. Cut noodles into 3-4 inch sections. Place 1/4 of the noodles into the bowl with the reserved vinegar mixture. Toss remaining noodles with the lime juice mixture. Mix noodles together with all remaining ingredients except peanuts. Sprinkle nuts over the top and serve immediately. This is also great with diced turkey for a non-meatless entree.   ☆ Vietnamese Spring Rolls   INGREDIENTS   3 garlic cloves  1 tomato  1/2 onion   1 lb / 450 g "ground beef" (usually one package of the fake stuff is the equivalent of this)  
3 carrots   1 lb / 450 g green beans  Soy sauce   Salt and pepper  Spring roll wrappers   Oil (any kind will do really, I use olive)    METHOD  I use a food processor to chop up the garlic, tomato, onion, carrots, and beans. But if you chop them yourself, just make sure you make them as small as possible. Leave them in separate bowls.    On medium heat put 1 T of oil in a large pot, and add the garlic, tomato, and onion. After that turns into a giant mush, or 5-10 minutes add the "meat" and 6 T of soy sauce. Again, after that starts looking like its all together / 10-13 mins, add the carrots and beans. Cover, and cook until everything is tender.    Now just drain it, and roll the mix up in the spring rolls. Use cornstarch and water, or something of the likes to seal them. Fry them in a pan with enough oil to cover about half of the roll.    Based on how much you put in each roll, it should make 15-30 rolls.    NOTES  Here is a recipe that I adapted from a vietnamese recipe that my mother told me (and dont tell her that I told you this... she'd kill me).      ☆ Vietnamese Salad Rolls Recipe   rice noodles bean sprouts  fresh cilantro and/or mint  green onions, julienned carrots, julienned celery, julienned  red pepper, julienned (optional) Anaheim chili, julienned (optional)  cooked meat, julienned (Chinese style roast pork, chicken, shrimp, pork loin, or combination)   Purchased Peanut Sauce: Taste of Thai makes a good one, but it has to be mixed with Coconut
Milk, which drives up the calories. Look for a mix that can be mixed with water, add a little chili paste and use for a dipping sauce for the Salad Rolls   Take a dinner plate and put hot tap water on it. Take a wrapper and wet it, making sure that every part gets wet. Transfer to another clean plate and place filling items on top. Wrap it like a burrito, closed at both ends: flip one end over the filling. Fold in the perpendicular ends to close in the filling. Roll in direction of first fold until you reach the end of the wrapper. The gluten in the wrapper will self-seal it. Set aside and repeat until your filling ingredients are gone, or you've reached the limit of what can be eaten at that meal. These do not keep well - don't try to refrigerate or freeze them - it's a disaster.   Salad Rolls make a great meal with a pot of Hot and Sour soup as an accompaniment, or a big bowl of Pho (Noodle Soup) and some peanut sauce.   Salad Roll Wrappers must be purchased in Asian markets or specialty stores. They are packaged about 100 to the package, but don't worry - they last a long time if protected from moisture.)    ☆ Vietnamese Hot Sauce Recipe   1 garlic clove minced  1/4 ts pepper flakes red, crushed 2 tb fish sauce 2 ts sugar  1 ts lime peel minced 2 ts lime juice 3 tb water   Increase the amount of red pepper flakes to suit taste. Combine garlic, lime peel, and red pepper flakes then add lime juice, fish sauce, water, and sugar. Whisk until all ingredients are blended  and sugar is dissolved. Makes about 1/3 cup. Will keep short periods if refrigerated.   Try this Vietnamese hot sauce recipe on noodles, meats, or seafood.   One of them is 'NEM'. NEM, CHA GIO or SPRING ROLL are different names of the most popular and traditional dish which Vietnamese people, especially those living abroad might think of not only as a normal food, but also something reminding of their mother land. It is called NEM in the North of Vietnam, CHA GIO in the South of Vietnam, and SPRING ROLL
in English. Now, just the word NEM only can make lots of people in the world when hearing and imaging of it, feel tons of mouth water running in their throats.  A hot, brown, newly fried roll which is made of a soft sheet of rice rolling around fresh meat, herbs, vegetables and some national secret ingredients is producing its magic fragrance. It is something you cannot turn your nose away. NEM is a dish of family which Vietnamese people make during the Vietnamese New Year when the whole family gathers for a happy family      Coming to our food festival, you come to our home  In this festival, we want to introduce to you some Vietnamese food  specialities. One of them, called NEM, would certainly be the most special one.


   
reunion after a year long living and working away from home. It is the day when all men in the family decorate their house and women prepare New Year food with NEM being a nice “must”. Children running around their parents fill up their home and the air with their naïve, twinkling smiling eyes and joyful voices. Their fathers and mothers sometimes have to stop their work not to quarrel them, but to watch their beautiful angels. The parents look at each other, their eyes silently say out all their happiness. And then comes the New Year’ Eve, food is placed on the table with lots of flowers around, with lovely music singing about. The charming colors of flowers, the delicious fragrance of NEM and the loving voices bringing warm wishes to each other go along with each family member all the New Year round.  And now, in this food festival, we are bringing you not only a Vietnamese traditional food but also a warm, happy and loving family atmosphere.   Welcome all of you, dear friends, to our beloved Vietnam family.  Vietnamese food is delicious and plentiful so I don’t know what food I should introduce to you. Rice noodle soup with beef, soya noodle with chicken, kebab rice noodle, stuffed sticky rice cake are popular food and all tourists like their taste. So today , I’m going to introduce to you a special food which is often present in the Vietnamese meals. Its name is braised fish, called “ca kho” in Vietnam. The ingredients consist of fresh fish, a little pork, fish sauce, ginger, soy souce and spice. Also you can use carp, snake-head, goby or any kind of fish that you like. Braised fish is delicious, and nourishing but quite cheap and easy to cook. So it is very popular in Vietnam. Perhaps that’s why most Vietnamese people who live abroad often miss their family and the taste of this food. If you want to try, I can cook it for you :)
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